WHAT HAPPENS WHEN MB > MC?
If MB > MC, then we should increase production of respective good, and decrease the production of other goods, since the value of one more unit of good, MB, is greater than the value of goods we must forego to make it, MC.
WHY IS PPC NOT A STRAIGHT LINE?
The shape of PPC depends on the opportunity cost of additional unit produced. If marginal opportunity cost remains constant then PPC will be a straight line owing to constant slope.
WHAT IS MARKET CLEARING?
The process of balancing or clearing the market by setting prices of goods in such a manner that the quantity supplied is equal to quantity demanded is known as market clearing.
HOW GOODS AND FACTOR MARKET ARE INTERDEPENDENT?
The goods and services market drives the factor market. When consumers demand more goods and services, manufacturers increase their purchases of the resources used to make those goods and services. Factor market producers, in turn, step up production of the raw materials that the manufacturers need. Thus, they are closely related to each other.
STATE THE LAW OF DEMAND.
The law of demand states that there is an inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded i.e. if prices of goods increase, the quantity demanded decreases and vice versa.
SINCE Q = A – BP, WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CURVE IF A CHANGES ALONE AND B CHANGES ALONE?
WHAT IS THE EFFECT ON PRICE WHEN DEMAND & SUPPLY CURVE SHIFT TOGETHER?
If the increase in both demand and supply is equal, the equilibrium price remains the same. In case of increase in demand > increase in supply, both equilibrium price and quantity tend to increase. If the increase in demand < increase in supply, the equilibrium price falls whereas the equilibrium quantity rises.
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF PRICE ON TR IN CASE OF INELASTIC DEMAND?
If the price for an inelastic good is increased and the demand does not change, the total revenue increases due to the higher price and static quantity demanded.
GIVE A SITUATION WHEN TR REMAINS UNCHANGED.
WHAT IS THE RELATION BETWEEN SLOPE OF DEMAND CURVE AND PED?
STATE ANY 2 IMPACTS OF ADVERTISING?
Advertising campaigns generally intend to increase both demand and brand loyalty for a product.
WHAT DOES IT INDICATE WHEN IED IS POSITIVE AND LESS THAN 1?
GIVE EXAMPLE OF WHERE ACTIONS OF SPECULATORS TEND TO REDUCE PRICE FLUCTUATIONS.
If a speculator believes that an asset is currently overpriced, they sell as much of the asset as possible while prices are higher. This act begins to lower the price of the asset.
GIVE EXAMPLE OF WHERE ACTIONS OF SPECULATORS TENDS TO MAKE PRICE MOVEMENTS LARGER.
If a speculator thinks the value of a certain asset will rise, they can decide to buy as much of the asset as they can. This activity raises the price of the specific asset depending on the projected increase in demand.
WHAT IS THE RELATION BETWEEN TU AND MU?
The total utility rises with a rise in commodity consumption as long as the marginal utility, or MU, is positive. When MU from each succeeding unit starts to decline, TU starts to rise but at a decreasing rate. The MU zeros out at the maximum TU. In this stage, TU stops expanding; this is the so-called “point of safety.” The MU turns negative and TU begins to decline when consumption exceeds the degree of contentment.
STATE THE FORMULA OF MSC.
Marginal Social Cost (MSC) = Marginal Private Cost (MPC) + Marginal External Costs (MEC)
WHEN IS TCS MAXIMISED?
STATE THE EQUI MARGINAL PRINCIPLE.
The equi-marginal principle states that utility will be maximised if the ratio of the marginal utilities is equal to the ratio of the prices (or alternatively that the marginal utilities per £ spent are equal).
COST = 10, BENEFIT = 20(AFTER 2 MONTHS), DF = 0.9, SHOULD YOU BUY THE PRODUCT OR NOT?
Present value of benefit= 20*0.9^(2/12)= 19.65 approximately which is greater than 10, thus we should buy the product.
IS THE OPTIMUM CONSUMPTION SAME AS EQUI MARGINAL PRINCIPLE?
WHAT IS THE SUBSTITUTION AND INCOME EFFECT WHEN PRICE OF INFERIOR GOOD RISES?
When an inferior good’s price increases, buyers tend to buy more of it and less of its substitutes because the income effect outweighs the substitution effect for inferior goods.
WHAT IS CERTAINTY EQUIVALENT?
The amount of money that is guaranteed and that someone would deem to have the same level of desirability as a risky asset is known as the certainty equivalent.
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM OF ADVERSE SELECTION?
Adverse selection describes scenarios where an insurance provider offers insurance coverage to a candidate whose actual risk is significantly higher than the candidate’s estimated risk.
STATE THE RELATION BETWEEN TPP AND MPP?
The following is an explanation of the relationship between TPP and MPP: TPP rises at an accelerating rate as long as MPP rises. (ii) TPP rises but at a declining rate when MPP declines but remains positive. (iii) TPP reaches its maximum when MPP falls to zero.
WHY DOES TVC CURVE START FROM ORIGIN BUT NOT TFC CURVE?
It is because when there is zero production, there will still be some fixed or sunk costs related to the factory or workplace.
HOW TO DEAL WITH THE REDUCTION IN SUPPLY DUE TO PRICE CEILING?
The imposed maximum price a seller is permitted to charge for a good or service is known as a price ceiling. The pricing (and profit) controls must be made up for in some way by the producers. They can restrict supply, reduce output or production quality, or tack on new fees for previously free options and features.
WHAT IS SUBSTITUTION EFFECT ON GIFFEN GOODS?
Giffen products are so inferior that the positive substitution effect surpasses the negative income effect. As a result, even as the price drops, less is still being desired. Giffen products have a demand curve that is favourably sloping (which means that as price decreases the quantity demanded also decreases).
WHAT IS RELATION BETWEEN AVC AND APP?
AVC and AP are negatively correlated, meaning that as AP rises, AVC falls. When AP is at its highest, AVC reaches its lowest point, and when AP is at its lowest, AVC rises.
WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY ECONOMIES OF SCALE?
The phenomenon known as economies of scale occurs when the scale or magnitude of the production produced by a firm increases while the average cost per unit of output decreases.
HOW ECONOMIES OF SCALE IS DIFFERENT FROM ECONOMIES OF SCOPE?
Economies of scope concentrate on the average overall cost of production of a range of items. In contrast, economies of scale concentrate on the cost advantage that results from a higher level of production for a single good.
WHAT IS MEANT BY CONTAINER PRINCIPLE?
Container Principle states that larger capital equipment, such as pipes, containers, and tanks, has a lower cost per unit of output. This is a result of how surface area and volume are related. The materials used to make the outside of a container determine its expenses, but the volume of the container determines its output. A container’s volume increases by a factor of 3 for every unit increase in surface area, hence the larger the container, the less expensive the average production.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN MPPL/PL > MPPK/PK
WHAT HAPPENS TO CURVES OF LRAC & LRMC WHEN COSTS ARE CONSTANT?
A U-shaped LRAC curve is consistent with the firm facing diseconomies of scale at higher output levels and economies of scale at relatively lower output levels. The LMC curve measures the change in LRTCs as output is raised and is derived from the LRAC curve. When LAC is decreasing, LMC are below the LAC curve, and when LAC is increasing, they are above the LAC curve.
WHEN DOES SHORT RUN SHUTDOWN POINT OCCUR?
If the price of the good is less than the average variable cost in the short run, a firm that cannot recover its fixed costs will decide to temporarily close. In the long run, if the price is less than the average total cost and the company can recover both fixed and variable costs, it will decide to quit.
HOW RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED IS CALCULATED?
Net operating profit, or earnings before interest and taxes, is used to assess return on capital employed. The difference between total assets and current liabilities can also be used to determine it by dividing earnings before interest and tax by that amount.
CONSTANT COST INDUSTRY?
A sector with constant costs is one in which the addition or exit of new firms has no effect on the costs of any individual firm.
CAN PERFECT COMPETITION EXIST WITH ECONOMIES OF SCALE?
Economies of scale hold that greater production per unit of input will arise from the application of additional resources, such as capital and labour.It also indicates a long-term oligopolistic situation since, if economies of scale are available, the market will be dominated by a small number of very large companies. Perfect competition makes the assumption that all inputs, including labour, can be moved from one activity to another without incurring any costs in order to increase profitability. This frictionless shifting of inputs means that as market conditions change, profit is squeezed out of the market, and suppliers will make no profit over the long term because any markets that generate profit will soon see an infusion of labour and capital until there is no profit left.
HOW EQUILIBRIUM PRICE IS CALCULATED?
The equilibrium price formula is based on amounts of supply and demand; to find the price, put quantity demanded (Qd) equal to quantity supplied (Qs) and find the price (P).
WHAT IS INDIFFERENCE CURVE?
A combination of two items in different quantities that gives a person equal satisfaction (utility) is represented by an indifference curve.
HOW MARGINAL UTILITY IS CALCULATED?
The additional satisfaction that a consumer experiences when they consume an additional unit of a good or service is referred to as marginal utility. It is calculated by subtraction of a unit’s total utility from the unit’s total utility before it.
WHAT IS MEANT LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS?
An economic principle known as the law of diminishing returns states that as investment in a certain area increases, the rate of profit from that investment can no longer increase at a certain point assuming other variables remain constant.
WHAT IS LIMIT PRICING OF A PRODUCT?
A limit price, also known as limit pricing, is a pricing strategy in which a supplier sells goods at a price so low as to make it unprofitable for rival suppliers to enter the market.
WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR PRICE DISCRIMINATION TO OPERATE?
Businesses must inhibit resale, be able to function in an imperfect market, and show demand elasticity for price discrimination to be effective.
WHAT IS FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD DEGREE PRICE DISCRIMINATION?
The business conducts first-degree discrimination by charging the highest price attainable for each consumed unit. Discounts for goods or services purchased in bulk constitute second-degree discrimination, whereas varying rates for various consumer groups constitute third-degree discrimination.
WHAT IS PARETO OPTIMALITY?
When no decision or action can be made makes one individual better off without making another worse off, this is known as Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality.
WHAT ARE CLUB GOODS?
Club goods are a category of good in economics that are excludable yet non-rivalrous, at least up until a point where congestion arises. They are frequently categorised as a subclass of public goods. These products frequently show great excludability but low consumption rivalry.
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT?
Historically, there has been an inverse correlation between inflation and unemployment. This implies that unemployment decreases as inflation increases. Conversely, higher unemployment results in reduced inflation. When more individuals are employed, they have more disposable income, which raises demand. Inflation in prices then quickly follows. When unemployment increases, the opposite is true.